HEPA Filter Air Purifiers; What Should You Know About Them?

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HEPA Filter Air Purifiers: Before Your Choice

This Article is Updated on – 12/06/2023,  Originally posted on – 18/12/2020

Air pollution is a growing concern in today’s world, and ensuring clean and healthy indoor air has become more important than ever.

HEPA (High-Efficiency Particulate Air) filter air purifiers have gained popularity as effective devices to improve indoor air quality.

In this article, we will explore the concept of HEPA filter air purifiers, how they work, the different types available, the significance of MERV ratings, important considerations before purchasing one, the benefits they offer, and the pros and cons of using these filtration systems.

Understanding HEPA Filter Air Purifiers

HEPA purifiers are advanced devices designed to remove harmful particles and impurities from the air we breathe.

These purifiers utilize HEPA filters, which are constructed with a fine mesh of fibers capable of trapping tiny particles as air passes through.

By capturing and filtering out these particles, HEPA filter purifiers help create cleaner and healthier indoor environments for individuals and families.

How Does HEPA Filter Work?

HEPA filter air purifier
The operation of a HEPA purifier is done by sending the airflow through a number of filters including HEPA – Image Credits

HEPA filters work through a combination of three mechanisms: interception, impaction, and diffusion. As air flows through the filter, larger particles are trapped and intercepted by the fibers.

Smaller particles collide with the fibers through impaction, while the tiniest particles move erratically and are captured by diffusion.

This comprehensive filtration process ensures that a high percentage of particles, including dust, pollen, pet dander, mold spores, and even some bacteria and viruses, are effectively filtered out, resulting in improved air quality.

Types of HEPA Air Filters

HEPA filters come in different types, each catering to specific air purification needs:

1. True HEPA Filters:

True HEPA filters are the most common and widely recognized type. They are capable of capturing 99.97% of particles as small as 0.3 microns, making them highly efficient in removing various contaminants from the air.

2. HEPA-Type Filters:

HEPA-type filters provide a similar function to true HEPA filters but with lower efficiency. They are more budget-friendly and suitable for less critical applications where a slightly lower level of filtration is acceptable.

3. Medical-Grade HEPA Filters:

Medical-grade HEPA filters are designed to meet stringent standards for air filtration in healthcare settings and cleanrooms.

They have higher efficiency and are particularly effective in capturing airborne pathogens and maintaining sterile environments.

4. ULPA Filters:

ULPA (Ultra-Low Penetration Air) filters offer even higher efficiency than HEPA filters. They are capable of capturing 99.999% of particles as small as 0.12 microns, making them ideal for ultra-clean environments such as pharmaceutical labs and semiconductor manufacturing facilities.

Comparison of HEPA 11, HEPA 12, HEPA 13, HEPA 14, and HEPA 15 filters:

HEPA GradeEfficiency (%)Particle Size (Minimum)Common ApplicationsAir Purity
HEPA 11950.3 micronResidential, commercial settingsGood air purification for general use
HEPA 12  99.5  0.3 micronHospitals, laboratories, cleanrooms  Excellent air purification
HEPA 13  99.950.3 micronResidential, and commercial settingsHighest level of air purification
HEPA 14 99.995 0.3 micronSemiconductor manufacturing, biotechnologyAdvanced filtration for sensitive
HEPA 15   99.9995 0.3 micronAerospace cleanrooms, nanotechnology certain surgical suitesHighest level of air purity for ultra-critical environments
Comparison of HEPA 11, HEPA 12, HEPA 13, HEPA 14, and HEPA 15 filters:

Note: The efficiency percentages provided are minimum requirements for each filter grade.


HEPA Filters vs Typical Air Filters

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Air Purifiers are coming with a combination of air filters- Image Credits

As mentioned before there are HEPA filters as well as standard normal filters for air purifiers. Each filter differs from one another depending on different reasons.

Parameter HEPA FilterStandard Air Purifier Filter
Filter ParticlesDebris/ allergens/ pet dander/ pollen/
Humidifier dust,/ nebulizer drops
Pollen/ dust / sanding dust/ spray paint dust, textile /carpet fibers
Filter Particle size1~3 microns3~10 microns
Efficiency90-95 %35-70 %
RequirementLaboratory/ HospitalsDomestic
PriceRelatively ExpensiveRelatively Low
Table of HEPA filter vs Standard Air Purifier Filters


What is MERV Rating?

MERV (Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value) rating is a scale that measures the effectiveness of air filters in removing particles from the air. The scale ranges from 1 to 20, with higher MERV ratings indicating better filtration capabilities.

When choosing a HEPA filter purifier, it is important to consider the MERV rating to ensure it meets your specific air quality requirements.

MERV RatingAverage Particle Size Efficiency in Microns
1-43.0 – 10.0 less than 20%
63.0 – 10.0 49.9%
83.0 – 10.0 84.9%
101.0 – 3.0 50% – 64.9%, 3.0 – 10.0 85% or greater
121.0 – 3.0 80% – 89.9%, 3.0 – 10.0 90% or greater
140.3 – 1.0 75% – 84%, 1.0 – 3.0 90% or greater
160.3 – 1.0 75% or greater
Comparison of MERV rating vs. Average Particle Size Efficiency in Microns


Factors to Consider Before Purchasing a HEPA Filter Purifier

Before purchasing a HEPA filter purifier, there are a few important factors to consider:

Room Size: Determine the size of the room or area where the air purifier will be used. Different models have different coverage capacities, so it’s essential to choose one that can effectively purify the air in your space.

Noise Level: Consider the noise level produced by the air purifier, especially if you plan to use it in a bedroom or office. Look for models with lower noise levels or built-in noise-reducing features.

Filter Replacement: Check the cost and availability of replacement filters for the air purifier. HEPA filters typically need to be replaced after a certain period to maintain optimal performance.

Energy Efficiency: Look for air purifiers that are energy-efficient to minimize electricity consumption and reduce long-term operating costs.

Benefits of Using a HEPA Air Purifier

HEPA filters air Purifiers are help with better sleep
HEPA filter air Purifiers help with better sleep

Using a HEPA filter purifier offers several benefits:

Improved Air Quality: HEPA filters effectively capture and remove airborne particles, allergens, and pollutants, resulting in cleaner and healthier indoor air.

Allergy Relief: HEPA filter purifiers can significantly reduce allergens such as pollen, dust mites, pet dander, and mold spores, providing relief for allergy sufferers.

Asthma Management: By eliminating asthma triggers like dust and pet allergens, HEPA filter purifiers can help manage asthma symptoms and improve respiratory health.

Odor Reduction: Some HEPA filter purifiers are equipped with activated carbon filters, which can effectively remove unpleasant odors from the air, such as those caused by cooking, pets, or smoking.

Peaceful Sleep: Cleaner air free from allergens and irritants can promote better sleep quality and alleviate nighttime congestion or sneezing.

Pros and Cons of Using HEPA Filters


  • High Filtration Efficiency
  • Reliable Air Purification
  • Versatility


  • Initial Cost
  • Filter Replacement:
  • Noise Level


HEPA filter purifiers play a vital role in improving indoor air quality and creating healthier living environments.

By understanding how they work, the different types available, the significance of MERV ratings, and considering important factors before purchasing, you can make an informed decision about which HEPA filter air purifier is best suited for your needs.

With their high filtration efficiency and numerous benefits, HEPA filter purifiers are an excellent investment in maintaining clean and fresh indoor air, promoting better health and well-being for you and your family.


Q: How often should I replace the HEPA filter in my air purifier? A: The frequency of filter replacement depends on factors such as the manufacturer’s recommendations and the air quality in your environment.

As a general guideline, HEPA filters should be replaced every 6 to 12 months for optimal performance.

Q: Can a HEPA filter remove viruses from the air? A: HEPA filters are capable of capturing particles as small as 0.3 microns, including many viruses.

However, it’s important to note that HEPA filters are not specifically designed to eliminate viruses, and additional measures such as vaccination and proper hygiene practices should also be followed.

Q: Are HEPA filter air purifiers noisy? A: Most HEPA filter purifiers are designed to operate quietly, allowing you to enjoy clean air without disruptive noise.

However, it’s advisable to check the noise levels mentioned in the product specifications before making a purchase.

Q: Can a HEPA filter remove cigarette smoke from the air? A: HEPA filters are effective in capturing and removing smoke particles, including those from cigarettes.

However, it’s important to note that HEPA filters may not completely eliminate the odor of smoke.

Q: Can a HEPA filter purifier help with allergies? A: Absolutely! HEPA filter purifiers are highly effective in capturing allergens such as pollen, dust mites, and pet dander.

By reducing the presence of these allergens in the air, they can provide relief for individuals suffering from allergies or asthma.

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